ASTR 360 Introduction to Galaxies and Cosmology

ASTR 360: Introduction to Galaxies and Cosmology

Spring 2019
TTh 1:00 - 2:15; HBH 254

Course Information and Syllabus

Makeup Days: We will meet outside of the regular class period on Fridays if we need to cancel a class for some reason (e.g. Thu 2/14). We will meet on Friday April 12 for student presentations of a journal article on galaxies.

Instructor: Dr. Patrick Hartigan, Hermann Brown 350, Phone: X2245

Texts:
Carroll & Ostlie, "An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics" 2nd ed. For the last 40% of the class we will supplement with Ryden "Introduction to Cosmology". A good 100-level introductory text if you have had no astronomy is Discovering the Universe by Comins and Kaufmann or Cosmic Perspective by Bennett. Auditors must attend class, but need not do problems or exams.

Grading: Based on a midterm oral exam (30%), journal presentations (10%), homeworks (30%), and a comprehensive final oral exam (30%).

Problem Sets, Honor Code: Problems are an important component to this class, and I will assign them periodically. We may not have time to cover all the solutions in class, so if necessary we may meet at some other time to discuss problems.

The honor code applies to the problems in the following way. If the student cannot solve a problem on their own in an hour, the student can keep working on it alone or ask for hints from a classmate who has done the problem. After writing up the problem, students should describe the level of help they required in doing it. Problems are due on the day we discuss them in class. No credit is given for late problems unless arranged beforehand, and substantial late penalties will apply. Once we cover problems in class no credit is possible. You should not be meeting as a group the night before they are due to work on them together, as is the current practice in some physics classes.

Presentations: In-class presentations will be based on recent (typically within 10 years) journal articles that relate to galactic structure or extragalactic astronomy. The choice of the article is up to the student, but I must approve the article beforehand. The presentations should be about 20 minutes long (depending on class size), and are informal. There is no need to make a fancy powerpoint presentation like you might do for a seminar talk. However, it is important for students to understand all the basic physics as it relates to the paper. Students should introduce the subject clearly and identify where the paper overlaps with what we are studying. This is one way for students to get some practice teaching. Presenters must provide classmates and professor with hardcopies of the article they will discuss well in advance of the presentation. There will be a separate time for the presentations on April 12 that will last about 2.5 hours, depending on class size.

Oral Exams: Undergraduate students sometimes comment upon completion of our major classes that they would have preferred more frequent tests of their knowledge to help keep them from getting too far behind. Cramming large amount of material for the final usually does not work well, and although problem sets help in this regard, they differ significantly from the final in that they are longer, more collaborative, and more complex computationally.

In response to this feedback, I have implemented oral exams for both ASTR 350 and ASTR 360 that I conduct in my office, covering the basic material we study in class. Although sometimes painful, all graduate students (and undergrads who aspire to graduate work) need to learn how to handle oral exam situations without panicking or freezing up, because that is how qualifying exams are done, and, eventually, what job interviews are like. There really is no better way to find out what someone knows than to see what they write on the board. Feedback from students has been that while some found it to be a scary experience, most felt it to be a very useful one in the long term. To do well in these students should review material after every class and not let difficulties slide until the night before the exam.

Material on the orals is pledged in the sense that no one may discuss the contents of the exams or provide any hints as to what to study until all class members have taken it. Scheduling the exams will be a work in progress and something we will figure out as the semester progresses. At the risk of stating the obvious, no aids of any kind are allowed during the oral exams.

Cell Phones, Texting, Email, Surfing, Tweeting, Blogging: Do this on your own time. If you must have your cell on for emergency purposes you may place it on vibrate and leave the class to take any call or message. Otherwise, no electronic devices are allowed in class. Even without sound they are simply too distracting to those around you, and to me.

Syllabus

DATE TOPIC Book Reference
T 1/8I. Background: Astronomical Observations; Physics of RadiationNotes
Th 1/10I. Background: Stellar Structure and Evolution Notes
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T 1/15 II. Milky Way: Star Counts; Olber's paradox; Distance Scales; Scale Heights Ch. 24 C&O
Th 1/17II. Milky Way: Virial; ISM Phases; Galactic Stellar content; "
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T 1/22II. Milky Way: Galactic Rotation; Velocity Ellipsoids; Oort A and B"
Th 1/24II. Milky Way: Rotation curves; begin Galactic Center "
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T 1/29 II. Galactic Center; Galactic distance ladder"
Th 1/31III. Normal Galaxies: Classification; Spirals, Tully-Fischer Ch. 25 C&O
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T 2/5III. Normal Galaxies: Ellipticals, Fundamental Plane; Luminosity function "
Th 2/7 --SPRING RECESS (No CLASS)
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T 2/12III. Normal Galaxies: Spiral density waves; resonances [Guest]"
Th 2/14No Class [PMH Travel]
F 2/15 3pmIII. Normal Galaxies: Spiral density waves; resonances "
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T 2/19IV. Galactic Evolution: Tidal friction; ring galaxies, mergers, formationCh. 26 C&O
Th 2/21V. Large Scale Structure: Extragalactic distance scale, clusters, voidsCh. 27 C&O
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T 2/26V. Active Galaxies NLR, BLR, radio galaxies, SeyfertsCh. 28 C&O
Th 2/28VI. Active Galaxies: Jets; Blazars; QSOs"
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T 3/5VI. Active Galaxies: Ly-alpha Forest; GRBs "
Th 3/7 Oral Exam scheduled throughout the day"
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T 3/12 --SPRING BREAK (No CLASS)--
Th 3/14 --SPRING BREAK (No CLASS)--
-- COSMOLOGY --
T 3/19Exam review; Begin Cosmology [Amin]Ryden Ch. 2
Th 3/21VII. Basic Cosmological Observations; Temperature and Blackbodies [Amin]
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T 3/26VII. Curvature; RW Metric; Distances; Redshift [Amin]Ryden Ch. 3
Th 3/28VII. Lambda; Newtonian cosmology, Friedmann, Acceleration, and Fluid Equations; EOS [Amin]Ryden Ch. 4
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T 4/2VII. Our Universe; Milne; Single Component Flat UniversesRyden Ch. 5
Th 4/4VII. Cosmology: Multiple Component Universes, the Benchmark ModelRyden Ch. 6
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T 4/9VIII. Observations : Acceleration, Dark Matter, Cosmic Microwave BackgroundRyden Ch. 7,8
Th 4/11IX. Early Universe: CMB, RecombinationRyden Ch. 9
F 4/12 3pmJOURNAL PRESENTATIONS
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T 4/16IX. Early Universe: NucleosynthesisRyden Ch. 10
Th 4/18IX. Early Universe: Flatness, Horizon, Monopole Problems, InflationRyden Ch. 11
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W 4/24 - W 5/1Final Exam Period
Disabled Students: Students with a documented disability that impacts their work in this class should contact me to discuss their needs. Disabled students should also register with the Disability Support Services Office in the Ley Student Center.